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EUROPEAN-SEED.COM I EUROPEAN SEED I 25 In some regions chiefly in Styria maize is the main source of income for farmers along with Styrian pumpkins grown for making pumpkin seed oil Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca. As Styria has the most favourable conditions for growing maize compared to the other province in Austria it is economically possible for farmers to produce maize full- time on the minimal amount of arable land. Most businesses in this region are involved in small-scale agricul- ture and 64 per cent of the farms are very small measuring just 10 ha or less. Thirty-five per cent of the Styrian famers have 67 to 100 per cent maize in their crop rotation often alternating with the Styrian pumpkin. These small farms and maize monocultures make it easy for WCR to colonize and hard to carry out crop rotation. In the other provinces WCR has also become naturalised but so far due to the economic background it has been possible to combat the pest with crop control. During the time when WCR was a quarantined pest 2003-2013 pest control was still required by law and everyone in the EU was con- fident of its extermination. There was no need for restructuring. There were special quarantine measures in infested zones that banned the movement of contaminated soil and fresh maize plants and forced crop rotation. By committing to these control measures we should have the- oretically eradicated the pest. Therefore crop rotation was enforced by law as early as 2004 in all Austrian provinces. According to this law maize must be planted at least three times in four years on the same field except for seed propagation. It was clear from the outset that simply complying with this law wouldnt be sufficient in combating the pest. Chemical solutions were particularly favoured in respect to seed treatments containing neonicotinoids. However the WCR popu- lation spread throughout Austria. The first damage was observed in Burgenland in 2007 and in Styria in 2011 where the damage is steadily getting worse. After the temporary restriction in Austria in 2013 until 2016 of seed treatments containing neonicotinoids imidacloprid clothianidin thiamethoxam a kind of rethinking began. Fortunately in the meantime considerable efforts have been made to continually keep up with developments taking place in science to find sustainable strategies to prevent the pest. Biological products based on nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Heterorhabditis megidis and entomopathogenic soil fungi were tested. It has been proven that THESE SMALL FARMS AND MAIZE MONOCULTURES MAKE IT EASY FOR WCR TO COLONIZE AND HARD TO CARRY OUT CROP ROTATION. FINELY CRAFTED SEEDS EXPERTS. Put your trust in our industry leading experts in wholesale seed and contract seed production. We are an open pollinated vegetable herb and flower seed company that offers you the knowledge resources and creativity to create quality beautiful and terrific tasting results. We serve the globe ask about our extensive inventory. Albany Oregon U.S.A. 541.928.7100 WCR may cause severe damage to corn as both larvae and adults.