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EUROPEAN-SEED.COM I EUROPEAN SEED I 23 GRAIN MAIZE SURFACEBT VS CONVENTIONAL SPAIN 1998-2015 0 1000hectares 100 200 300 400 500 600 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Bt Grain Maize 22 25 26 12 23 32 58 53 54 75 79 80 77 97 116 137 132 108 Conventional Grain Maize 429 370 407 500 442 444 422 364 300 286 284 269 235 272 271 302 285 275 48 63 6 23 49 67 121 127 152 208 217 23 247 30 312 263 316 282 FIGURE 2. Spains GM Maize surface as a percentage of conventional maize surface. teams ensures farmers awareness of refuge compliance is reinforced. These activities include the following a presentation on IRM updated by the ANOVE Bt-maize group and provided to individual companies thus ensuring common messages across the market during farmers talks and commercial presenta- tions continuous communication about IRM implementation in all sales tools prepared by seed companies leaflets brochures cat- alogues etc. advertisement about refuge compli- ance articles and references to the Good Agricultural Practices and Technical User Guide published in key agricultural maga- zines postcards for farmers located in GM maize-growing areas reinforcing key mes- sages about refuge implementation posters reminding farmers about the obliga- tion to plant a refuge dispersed among seed distributors and points of sales communication plan for co-operatives small points of sales and farmers in which trained ANOVE inspectors complete visits at planting time in GM maize-growing areas to inform distribute material and ensure farmers are well advised on refuge imple- mentation when buying GM seeds. TRACEABILITY AND LABELLING In addition the technical user guides attached to seed bags contain the requirements of the Regulation EC No. 18302003 concerning the traceability and labelling of genetically modified organisms. Operators must transmit in writing to the receiver of the product that it contains or consists of GMOs and it must be labelled as such. In order to facilitate this requirement the techni- cal user guide includes a form to fill out to be used by operator and buyer as notification of GMOs. This document must be held for five years COEXISTENCE Finally the technical user guide includes recom- mendations on coexistence by the Spanish seed industry based on comprehensive studies per- formed in real situations of coexistence in main production areas by the Institute for Research and Technology in Food and Agriculture of Catalonia Spain These recommendations include the following use of certified seed and label retention before sowing know your neighbouring farmers cultivation and sowing date clean drilling machinery carefully after sowing GM maize if it is to be used for con- ventional or organic crops at the end of the harvest of GM varie- ties harvest at least 2000 square metres of conventional maize labelling as GM maize separate GM grains from conventional or organic grains during transport drying storing or processing use suitable practices for weed control when conventional corn is grown in rota- tion. According to surveys conducted by ANOVE as well as commercial experience there is a de facto coexistence in the market without disputes between farmers or disproportionate costs or restrictions. Partnerships among ANOVE members on education programmes in addition to farmers commitment to good agricultural practices implementation have been key ele- ments to Spains successful GM maize produc- tion without restrictive and disproportionate regulations. As the new EU regulatory framework Directive 2009128EC requires the implemen- tation of integrated pest management princi- ples in maize production GM maize cultivation in Spain demonstrates sustainable maize pro- duction in areas affected by corn borers and has proved to be an excellent tool for farmers in those areas. Sourcewww.magrama.gob.eses Bt Grain Maize Conventional Grain Maize