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EUROPEAN-SEED.COM I EUROPEAN SEED I 27 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF NBTs Potatoes with reduced amylase content and with late blight resistance. Apples with scab resistance and with decreased allergenicity. Rice with bacterial leaf blight resistance. Oilseed rape with herbicide tolerance. Wheat with powdery mildew resistance. Maize with drought tolerance and herbicide tolerance. Soybean with improved oil quality. transformation efficiencies to produce high numbers of modified plants. The disadvantages described above for intragenesis and cisgenesis are greatly compensated by their potential to over- come some of the limitations of conven- tional plant breeding. Both cisgenesis and intragenesis confer a faster and more precise tool for the transfer of genetic con- structs between related species than clas- sical backcross breeding. At the same time the linkage drag often seen in conventional backcross programs is avoided. The intra-cisgenic techniques can also overcome limitations of classical breeding when it comes to improving traits with limited natural allelic variation. A higher expression level of a trait can be obtained through cisgenesis by insert- ing an additional gene copy of the trait or through intragenesis by introducing a hybrid gene containing an advantageous promoter and terminator isolated from the sexually compatible gene pool. Lower expression levels can be obtained through intragenesis by the introduction of differ- ent silencing constructs. VALUABLE NEW TOOLS New plant breeding techniques signifi- cantly reduce the time and effort needed to produce new plant varieties and allow more precision. It would seem that consid- ering the immense challenges ahead the NBTs provide valuable new tools to EU plant breeders that are much needed in light of both the EUs agricultural sector constraints and the global challenges concerning population increase climate change food security and the sustainable use of resources. FIGURE 6. Diagram comparing the genetic changes achieved through conventional plant breeding transgenesis and cisgenesis. Position paper of European Seed Association ESA on New Plant Breeding Techniques www.euroseeds.eunew-plant-breeding-techniques EU Commission page on New Plant Breeding Techniques ec.europa.eufoodplantgmolegislationplant_breedingindex_en.htm EFSA paper on cisgenesis intragenesis www.efsa.europa.euenefsajournalpub2561 EFSA paper on Zinc Finger Nuclease 3www.efsa.europa.euenefsajournalpub2943 JRC paper on New Plant Breeding Techniques ftp.jrc.esEURdocJRC63971.pdf New Breeding Techniques NBT Platform WUR brochure on Opportunities of New Plant Breeding Techniques edepot.wur.nl357723 ADVANTAGES OF NBTs Increased precision and efficiency of the plant breeding process. Arrive quicker at the desired plant characteristics. Faster ways to increase plants resistance to pests and diseases. This in turn leads to a reduction in the use of pesticides. Faster ways to increase plants tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought leading to better use of water and other resources. With that new plant varieties provide for a greater harvest security and higher food security. Overall NBTs provide benefits to EU consumers and have a positive impact on the environment. Food is produced in a more sustainable manner. More high-quality plant varieties are available for EU farmers giving them the possibility to produce food and feed in a more efficient and sustainable way. It also provides farmers with the necessary means to generate some much-needed economic benefits. The techniques will become a major driver of Europes economy and ensure that EU plant breeders remain competitive on a global scale. SourceWikipedia