b'such as a bad climate. All is all, this hasTable 1: Comparison of benefits of protected and unprotected rice varietiesled to an increase in farmer income. ManyNon protected new varieties of flowers and vegetablesItems Protected Varieties varietieswere introduced to Vietnam from coun-tries like Japan, the Netherlands and thePrice of seed 1.42 0.66US. And the Vietnamese farmers receive(rice, USD/1 kg)a good price for these products at export.Price of commercial6.5 5.5An example on the benefits forgrain is sold by farmer Vietnamese farmers is shown in Table(rice,VND/1 kg)1, based on data from the VINA SeedAverage income in 1 ha for1872 1265Cooperation for the case of rice, the mostfarmer (rice); USDimportant crop in Vietnam. Benefits from seed of- Better quality, productivityprotected varieties - Better tolerance in bad climate 2. Diversification of parties that develop- Better resistance to diseases & insectsnew plant varieties - Reduce of invest for productionBefore PVP appeared in Vietnam, breed- Source: VINA Seed Corporation, July 2018ing a new variety was only conducted by researchers from the public sector (publicGraph 1: Number of PVP applications in the period 2004 to 2018 for the different research institutes, universities).categories of applicants. However, when Vietnam implemented a PVP legislation, there were some major700changes to the range of people who carry out the breeding and selection of the new varieties. Data show that besides the600public sector, now also private sector com-panies, farmers and individual had started breeding new varieties, see Graph 1.5003. Specialization in the chain from cre-ating to introducing to producing a new No. of Applicationsplant variety. 400Before Vietnam established a PVP system, after breeding a new variety, the breeder had to try to introduce the new300variety to the farmers by themselves. But they did not have a professional distribu-tion system, which meant that farmers were unable to obtain a regular supply200of high-quality seed. But since the PVP system is in place, after creating a new variety, breeders often license a company100to exploit the right after which they col-lect a royalty, or sometimes sell their PVP right to a company. Companies now own a good distribution system and they have0very good seed production skills, so theFarmer IndividualResearcher Company PublicUniversitiesfarmer has access to good service and(Grower andResearch high-quality seed. At the same time, theothers) Instituteschange of the seed distribution made the management of seed quality in the market much easier for the authorities. The spe- BEFORE PVP AFTER PVPcialization in the chain makes the breed- Licenseing and introduction of new varieties to the farmers more effective. Breeders Breeders Company4. More R&D investment by the privateNo professionalRoyaltysector and increasing the scope and com- distribution systempetition capacity of Small and MediumGood professional Enterprises (SME) Farmer distribution system FarmerPVP encourages the investment by the private plant breeding sector into the Research and Development (R&D) of new plant varieties. In Vietnam, before thereNot professional; Good service for was a PVP system in place, almost all ofDifficulties with seedthe farmer; Better the companies only engaged in a tradingquality control seed quality due to professional business but did not engage in any R&Dapproachactivities. As soon as a PVP system was implemented in Vietnam, the private 18IEUROPEAN SEEDIEUROPEAN-SEED.COM'