b'is an append only one which ensures permanent and non-amend-able record keeping in all copies. These features are an integral part of DLT/Blockchain technology. The above features of Blockchain technology, discussed in a simplified manner in our example, are described or referred to using the following terms: (i)decentralized and distributed (rather than central-ized) record keeping in multiple copies, with each network node (participant) carrying a complete copy of the transaction history;(ii)trustless, computational (rather than human) and automated verification of system integrity (including data integrity, i.e. the data in the blockchain is complete, accurate and consistent, and behavioral integrity, i.e. the system is func-tioning the way it is meant to); and (iii) immutable record keeping that maintains a record of the entire transaction history in a sequential, traceable, trans-parent and (hopefully) tamper-proof manner. Together, these features permit tracking and tracing of transactions to their source (provenance), while also prevent-ing tampering attempts. In short, blockchain reduces the need to trust centralized human agencies. Instead, trust is placed in the hands of algorithms designed by the blockchain community, which implement the protocol agreed to by the community. It has been said that if humans repeatedly fail to build trust, perhaps algorithms should replace themDATA SECURITYThe question that still remains is that of (iv) data security. Here, blockchain uses another age-old feature, namely cryptographic hashing, that permits data subjects to better manage and con-trol who has access to their (personal) data. Blockchain/DLT may also help accomplish the goal of data portability (includ- Mrinalini Kochupillaiing by incentivizing data sharing and automating payments for shared data), thereby supporting the establishment of a data economy envisaged by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Undoubtedly, there are still several shortcomings inbuyer of seeds) chooses to rely on their authority.Accordingly, the technology that make it susceptible to the same risks as inattributes like quality and reliability, which are currently consid-existing centralized systems. Nevertheless, the above featuresered objectively verifiable based on certification requirements of blockchain, together with the fact that it is also (v) a pro- of centralized authorities, may become more and more subjec-grammable platform that permits new applications, includ- tive, varying based on which node any stakeholder considers ing smart contracts, to be built on it, make Blockchain/DLT aon personal judgement and experience to be reliable, and which highly attractive option for several use cases. Smart contractsattribute (e.g. of the seeds being sold) is being sought by the execute money transfers without the need for any intermedi- buyer. The establishment of such a system, is not, however, with-ary, especially when cryptocurrencies are adopted. Undoubtedly,out its challengesboth technically and practically speaking.the technology is still in its nascent stages of development and user adoption is relatively low due to the greater convenienceDr. Mrinalini Kochupillai is a senior academic researcher (currently) of centralized systems. Nevertheless, Blockchain canand Founder-Director of Sustainable Innovations Research significantly reduce transaction costs and the need for inter- and Education (SIRN). She is currently in the process of estab-ventions by regulatory authorities. It has been estimated, forlishing a blockchain-based start-up in the agri-seed sector.example, that blockchain could facilitate global savings of up to US$6 billion per year in business transactions.Would the role of governmental and law enforcement agen-cies then be eliminated in a blockchain world? No. Instead, per-haps more accurate would be to say that their role, power and authority will become more distributed, transparent and/or susceptible to contradiction or verification by independentIf you wish to learn why blockchain is considered a disruptive technol-stakeholders. Further the value of their certifications and reg- ogy and how blockchain can be used in the agri-sector, please see the ulations would depend on how much each individual player (e.g.full version of this article on our website: european-seed.comEUROPEAN-SEED.COMIEUROPEAN SEED I 23'